Prepared for the
Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations

by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
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March 4, 2005

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In-Depth Issues:

Iran Building Nuclear Storage Tunnels (AP/Houston Chronicle)
    Iran is using reinforced materials and tunneling deep underground to store nuclear components - measures meant to deter "bunker busters" and other special weapons in case of attack, diplomats said Thursday.

    See also Iran Accuses IAEA of Leaking Nuclear Secrets - Gareth Smyth, Stephen Fidler, and Guy Dinmore (Financial Times-UK)
    A senior Iranian security official on Thursday accused the International Atomic Energy Agency of leaking information from inspections of Iran's nuclear facilities.
    Speaking on Iranian television, Hossein Mousavian, foreign policy head of the Supreme National Security Council, also warned the UK, France, and Germany that Iran would leave talks with them on its nuclear program unless there was "tangible progress."

Eyeing Hamas Rivals, Fatah Young Guard Resigns, Plans Primaries - Wafa Amr (Reuters)
    Thirty-two local Fatah leaders, constituting the young guard of the dominant Palestinian faction in the West Bank, resigned their posts on Thursday in protest at alleged mismanagement by senior members.
    "The young guard have decided to take the initiative to salvage Fatah," said Fatah leader Ahmed Ghneim. "Otherwise Hamas will take over in upcoming legislative elections just as it did in the municipal elections in Gaza."
    "We have decided to hold primaries to choose our own candidates to run for the legislative elections," said Hussein al-Sheikh, who was among those who quit.

Fatah Lays Siege to Waqf Offices - Arnon Regular (Ha'aretz)
    Some 70 Fatah activists laid siege on Thursday to the offices of the Waqf Muslim religious trust in El Azzariyeh east of Jerusalem in protest over its management practices.
    The siege follows a series of jailbreaks recently orchestrated in the West Bank and Gaza.

Arab Volunteers Killed in Iraq: An Analysis - Reuven Paz (PRISM) (pdf)
    In the past two months, supporters of Jihadi Salafi groups have posted lists of Arabs who were killed in Iraq on Islamist web sites - 154 in the past six months.
    Countries of origin: Saudi Arabia 94 (61%), Syria 16 (10%), Iraq 13 (8%), Kuwait 11 (7%), Jordan 4, Lebanon, Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Yemen, Tunisia, PA, Dubai, Sudan.
    Particularly striking is the absence of Egyptians, although hundreds of Egyptians took part in previous Islamist battles.

Syrian-Style Hatred - Roi Nachmias (Yediot Ahronot-Ynet)
    After airing hate-filled television shows, the Syrians continue to print anti-Semitic and anti-Israel books, such as the new edition of the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
    The new 2005 edition added sections that encourage Palestinian terrorism and include harsh incitement against the U.S. and Israel, which the writer says is "destined to disappear from this world."

A Terrorist Wins in Indonesia - Editorial (Wall Street Journal, 4Mar05)
    Make Abu Bakar Baasyir the pinup boy of the set that believes that fighting terrorism is merely a law enforcement matter, to be fought in civilian courts under the strictures of habeas corpus and other evidentiary requirements.
    A Jakarta court Thursday cleared Baasyir, 66, of being the mastermind of the Bali and Marriott Hotel bombings.
    It did find him guilty of conspiracy in the Bali horror, but for that it sentenced him only to 30 months in prison, and he's likely to win on appeal, observers say.
    The evidence is strong that Baasyir headed the al-Qaeda southeast Asian affiliate Jemaah Islamiyah, and it looks like he will be back in business again soon

Wahhabis, Go Home: Confronting Saudi Evangelism in Kuwait, Europe, and the U.S. - Olivier Guitta (Weekly Standard)
    In the past few weeks, Kuwait has been waging its own war on terror at home. The police have engaged in five bloody gun battles with extremists since Jan. 10.
    Kuwaiti authorities acted swiftly to tackle the root of the problem: They are closing down unlicensed mosques and barring Saudi imams, the tireless purveyors of Islamist extremism, from preaching inside the emirate.
    Former Kuwaiti oil minister Ali al-Baghli wrote in the Kuwait daily Al Qabas on Feb. 2: "What is needed is to cut off the snake's head, namely the masters of terror and all those who propagate terror in mosques and the media."
    Yet even as tiny Kuwait, a Muslim country, confronts the problem of Saudi-funded propagation of extremism, European governments continue to treat it with something like benign neglect.

Jihad's Stealthy Legions - Alex Alexiev (Middle East Quarterly)
    Every fall, over a million almost identically dressed, bearded Muslim men from around the world descend on the small Pakistani town of Raiwind for a three-day celebration of faith.
    Similar gatherings take place annually outside of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Bhopal, India.
    These pilgrims belong to a movement called Tablighi Jamaat ("Proselytizing Group").
    They are trained missionaries who have dedicated much of their lives to spreading Islam across the globe.
    The largest group of religious proselytizers of any faith, they are part of the reason for the explosive growth of Islamic religious fervor and conversion.

Moody's: Israel Recession Completely Over - Zeev Klein (Globes)
    Israel's economy has completely recovered from recession, states Moody's in its annual report on the Israeli economy, published Tuesday.
    Standard & Poor's and Fitch Ratings have also published positive reports on Israel.
    Moody's predicts that Israel's economy will continue to perform well in 2005, but warns that the global economic slowdown will reduce Israel's growth rate.
    Moody's stresses growth engines: exports rose by 15%, there is a current accounts surplus, low inflation, and a low short-term interest rate.

Ontario Police Chiefs' Visit to Israel Will Enhance Security (Canada NewsWire)
    Lessons learned by Ontario police chiefs during a six-day mission to Israel could help improve security in Ontario, says Community Safety and Correctional Services Minister Monte Kwinter.
    The Ontario contingent will visit police field units, the Israeli border police, anti-terrorist units, and a rehabilitation center for injured police officers.

Defeating Anti-Israeli and Anti-Semitic Activity on Campus - A Case Study: Rutgers University - Rebecca Leibowitz (Jewish Political Studies Review)
    Since the beginning of the second intifada in the fall of 2000, anti-Israel activity has increased significantly across American university campuses.
    Jewish students at Rutgers University, the State University of New Jersey, were intimidated by the extreme anti-Israel sentiment that often crossed the line into anti-Semitic activity.
    A new proactive campaign in the months leading up to the Third Annual Palestinian Solidarity Movement Conference had a major impact on student opinion toward Israel, prevailing over both anti-Israel and anti-Semitic activity in the fall of 2004.

Useful Reference:

2004 Human Rights Report (U.S. State Department)

The Dagger and the Koran - News Photo (AP/Yahoo)
    A masked supporter of the Islamic Jihad movement, which claimed responsibility for last week's suicide bomb attack that killed five Israelis in Tel Aviv, holds a knife and a copy of the Koran during a demonstration in Hebron in support of the bombing.

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News Resources - North America, Europe, and Asia:

  • Saudis Join Call for Syrians to Quit Lebanon - Hassan M. Fattah
    Saudi Arabia told Syria on Thursday to withdraw its troops from Lebanon, adding substantially to Syria's international isolation just a day after Russia joined Western nations in making a similar call. (New York Times)
  • Palestinians to Execute 15 Prisoners in March - Adel Zaanoun
    The PA is poised to resume executions of prisoners on death row for the first time since August 2002, with 15 due to be carried out by the end of the month, Palestinian military courts chief Saeb al-Qidwa said Thursday. According to the Palestinian Center for Human Rights, 9 death sentences have been carried out since the formation of the PA in 1994 out of a total of 70 imposed by the courts. Since the start of the Palestinian uprising in September 2000, dozens of Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israel have been summarily murdered by militants. (Middle East Online-UK)
        At least half of the inmates were convicted of "collaboration" with Israel.  (Jerusalem Post)
  • Israel Seeking Ways to Make Peace "Real" to Palestinians - Julie Stahl
    Israeli Vice Premier Shimon Peres met with Mohammed Dahlan, the PA Minister for Civil Affairs, on Wednesday to discuss ways to make the "peace process" more real and relevant to the average Palestinian by helping to solve some of their daily problems. Poverty, unemployment, and hunger are rife, particularly in the Gaza Strip. Peres and Dahlan discussed areas of potential cooperation, including the freedom of movement of goods and people; the transfer of existing Israeli businesses to Palestinians; job creation; and improving the standard of living, according to Peres' office.
        There are 1,000 acres of high-tech, state-of-the-art Israeli-owned greenhouses in the Gaza Strip that Peres sees creating 20,000 jobs for Palestinians. "Israel is negotiating with the Americans and with others, with the international community, to leave all the infrastructure of the hothouses to the Palestinians through a third party," said Yonaton Bassi, who heads the government's disengagement authority, on Wednesday. (CNS News)
        See also Falling Again Into Oslo's Aid Trap - Daniel Doron
    At Tuesday's conference in London, the U.S. and the EU pledged hundreds of millions of dollars to help the PA democratize and fight terror. But before more money is proffered, it may be prudent to carefully analyze why the last time the world showered the PA with billions of dollars what ensued was not peace and prosperity but a bloody conflict. Essentially what undermined Oslo was the erroneous supposition that agreements with reformed terrorist organizations could initiate a process of democratization and that massive government-to-government aid could create a prosperous economy. In reality, foreign aid financed a 150,000-man corrupt bureaucracy, a 50,000-strong army that was yet not "strong enough" to stop the terror, and 12 secret services.
        Once again, the West is rushing to channel massive aid to the PA that has yet to become really democratic. Such aid will only bolster an inefficient and corrupt public sector controlled by PA operators. The writer is director of the Israel Center for Social and Economic Progress. (Wall Street Journal, 4Mar05)
  • News Resources - Israel and the Mideast:

  • Israel Still Hunting Bomb Masterminds - Amos Harel
    The Israel Defense Forces and the Shin Bet security service have deployed large forces in an effort to locate the Islamic Jihad militants from the Tulkarm region believed responsible for the suicide bomber who killed five Israelis in Tel Aviv last week. (Ha'aretz)
  • PA Chiefs Under Pressure to Act Against Terror - Arnon Regular
    Right after the Shin Bet security service received a warning on Wednesday morning that a suicide bomber was on his way to Jerusalem, many of the PA security chiefs in Ramallah began bombarding the Israelis with questions. The heads of the PA security forces are concerned that every attack could cost the job of the individual who could have prevented it.
        The new interior minister, General Nasser Yussuf, understands that there are at least eight active forces whose chiefs are enmeshed in a complex system of alliances that stymies progress toward controlling the situation. Yussuf has begun to deliver the first pink slips to officers whom he believes have not delivered the goods. He also has begun to transfer forces from one area to another in the hope that officers and men who are not related to each other or to members of local armed groups will be able to act against them. (Ha'aretz)
  • Jordan's Foreign Minister on Saturday in Ramallah and Tel Aviv
    Jordanian Foreign Minister Hani al-Malqi will head to Israel on Saturday for a two-day visit, the first for a Jordanian official in four years, aimed at "bringing back warmth" to the relations between the two countries and to "give the peace process a push forward," according to al-Malqi. (
        See also Jordan's FM: Israel Visit Will Open New Chapter (Jerusalem Post)
        See also Warmer by the Minute - Yoav Stern
    The arrival of Jordanian Ambassador Dr. Marouf al-Bakhit revived the embassy, located in Ramat Gan. Two days after Bakhit's Feb. 20 arrival, the telephones began ringing and new initiatives were offered. Previously ambassador to Turkey, Bakhit retired from the army in 1999 at the rank equivalent to major general. In the past few months the highest echelons in Amman decided to promote ties between Jordan and Israel after a cold spell that lasted years. (Ha'aretz)
  • Global Commentary and Think-Tank Analysis (Best of U.S., UK, and Israel):

    Israel and the Palestinians

  • A Multi-Pronged Strategy to Defeat Hamas - David Makovsky
    The key challenge is to stop those who oppose any peace agreement, such as Hamas, which is ideologically committed to Israel's destruction. Fighting Hamas with new Palestinian security forces is an obvious starting point, but that alone won't suffice. A political and financial strategy is also needed to neutralize them. It is also important to compete with Hamas in the economic sphere, since Hamas has a proven track record in providing essential social services that the Palestinians were not able to obtain from the government.
        Abbas needs to articulate how nonviolence is validated by economic benefits. Such steps are especially important as Hamas will claim that the Israeli exit is a result of its terror strategy. Competing with Hamas also needs to be done at the ballot box. If the mainstream Fatah party in Gaza wants to do better in the parliamentary elections than in January's municipal polls, it needs new candidates free from the taint of corruption. (International Herald Tribune)
  • Palestinian Islamic Jihad Is Controlled by Iran - Interview with Martin Indyk - Elaine Shannon
    According to Martin Indyk, former Assistant Secretary of State for Near East Affairs and U.S. Ambassador to Israel during the Clinton administration, "What Secretary Rice knows and hasn't said is that the Palestinian Islamic Jihad is controlled by Iran. While it's important, essential, to get the Syrians to shut down the PIJ office in Damascus, it's also important to be clear about what the source of the problem is. From the mid-1990s, Iran has been determined to use PIJ terrorist operations to disrupt the Israeli-Palestinian peace process, and there is a very clear of pattern of PIJ activities during the intifada. Whenever [the region] calmed down, it was the PIJ that launched terrorist attacks, because the Iranians have a very strong interest in preventing the peace process from going forward. We should be pointing the finger at Iran and pressuring them, with the Europeans, to stop this sponsorship of terrorism against the Israeli-Palestinian peace process." (TIME)
  • Israel's Newly Approved Security Fence Route: Geography and Demography - David Makovsky and Anna Hartman
    The Israeli cabinet approved modified routing of the security fence, prompted by an Israeli supreme court decision last summer made to avert Palestinian hardship. The changes include: (1) revised routing to bring the fence closer to the "green line" (pre-1967 boundaries); (2) the elimination of all fence routes where Palestinians would have been completely encircled by the security fence; (3) the addition of the Maale Adumim settlement bloc; and (4) final authorization of fence routing near the Etzion bloc.
        The 2003 fence route was scheduled to encompass 16% of West Bank land. The new route will put 5% of the West Bank on the "Israeli" side of the fence, that will include only 5,400 Palestinians. The amended fence will serve not as a catalyst to impede a two-state solution, but rather to facilitate such an outcome. (Washington Institute for Near East Policy)
        See also Map of Israel's Newly Approved Security Fence Route (Washington Institute for Near East Policy)

    Lebanon and Syria

  • The Road to Damascus - Charles Krauthammer
    We are at the dawn of a glorious, delicate, revolutionary moment in the Middle East, triggered by the invasion of Iraq, the overthrow of Saddam Hussein, and televised images of 8 million Iraqis voting in a free election. Which led to the obvious question throughout the Middle East: Why the Iraqis and not us?
        Flynt Leverett, your usual Middle East expert, took to the New York Times to oppose the immediate end of Syria's occupation of Lebanon. Instead, we should be trying to "engage and empower" the tyranny in Damascus. These people never learn. Here we are on the threshold of what Arabs in the region are calling the fall of their own Berlin Wall and our "realists" want us to go back to making deals with dictators. (Washington Post)
        See also Don't Rush on the Road to Damascus - Flynt Leverett (New York Times)
  • Israel Should Support Democracy in Lebanon - Ze'ev Schiff
    Syria supports Palestinian terrorist organizations headquartered in Damascus that give orders for acts of murder in Israel and the undermining of the political process with the Palestinians, dispatches terrorists to Iraq, supplies Syrian rockets to Hizballah, and integrates the terror group into the Syrian army network. All these, in addition to cooperation with Iran, are undermining regional stability.
        Israel should support the democratic move in Lebanon, which requires Syrian withdrawal. Israel must act so that the pressure on Damascus to end the cooperation with terror organizations will continue. The withdrawal of foreign forces from Lebanon must include the removal of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, dozens of whose officers are active in Lebanon. (Ha'aretz)
  • Hizballah Rising: The Political Battle for the Loyalty of the Shi'a of Lebanon - Rodger Shanahan
    Hizballah is genuinely popular in Lebanon, both as a consequence of its resistance activities that prompted the 2000 withdrawal of the IDF from the country's south, as well as its ability to achieve the return of prisoners from Israeli jails in return for the remains of IDF soldiers. For Hizballah, the withdrawal of the Israelis gave it the ability to announce both its Lebanese nationalist credentials, as well as its wider authority as the only Arab group to defeat Israel militarily. In May 2004, the party staged a mass rally of over 250,000 people in Beirut to protest U.S. military incursions into the Iraqi holy sites at Karbala and Najaf, indicating its mass appeal. (MERIA/IMRA)
  • Out of Lebanon - Nir Boms and Aaron Mannes
    Controlling Lebanon is integral to the Syrian regime's survival. The Syrian economy stays afloat by plundering Lebanon and controlling the Beqaa Valley drug trade. Furthermore, Syria's Baathists derive their legitimacy from the concept of "Greater Syria," which includes Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and part of Turkey. Relinquishing control of Lebanon would deprive the shaky Syrian regime of its raison d'etre, as well as its preferred venue for attacking Israel. Wresting Lebanon from Syria would change Middle Eastern geopolitics and advance democracy, but it will not be easy. (National Review)

    Democracy in the Arab World

  • A Mideast Makeover? - Jackson Diehl
    Egypt's Mubarak and Syria's Assad are autocrats whose regimes had remained unaltered, and unchallenged, for decades. There has been no political ferment in Damascus since the 1960s, or in Cairo since the 1950s. Now, within weeks of Iraq's elections, Mubarak and Assad are tacking with panicked haste between bold acts of repression, which invite an international backlash, and big promises of reform - which also may backfire, if they prove to be empty. They could yet survive; but quite clearly, the Arab autocrats don't regard the Bush dream of democratic dominoes as fanciful. (Washington Post)
  • the Arab World - Claude Salhani
    A new phenomenon in the Middle East can be summed up in a single word - "kifaya," Arabic for "enough." People have had enough of the region's political and economic stagnation. There is growing frustration in the lack of participation in government. In recent weeks the word "kifaya," or "enough," has appeared on hundreds of posters carried by demonstrators in Cairo demanding Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak not run for a fifth term. The same word was seen in Beirut, carried after former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri's assassination by thousands at protests against Syrian occupation of Lebanon. Egypt's National Campaign for Change has adopted the word "Kifaya" as its name. (Washington Times)
  • The Quest for Democratic Political Reforms in the Middle East and the Prevailing Arab Political Culture - David Govrin
    The fundamental political culture of Muslim Arab societies is based on the unquestionable sovereignty of God, and democracy and popular sovereignty, in its Western sense, appear to be contrary to this concept. The notion of the secularity of the state, the diffusion of power, the superiority of state law, popular suffrage and elections, checks and balances, the right of women to participate in the political process, and the role of independent groups in society are still alien to Muslim Arab political culture.
        The common character of the current Arab regimes is their authoritarian nature. Their legitimacy stems from military power or religious ancestry, not their people. Civil society, an essential element in establishing democracy, is either weak or nonexistent. The writer was formerly First Secretary of the Israeli Embassy in Cairo and Political Counselor of the Permanent Mission of Israel to the UN in New York. (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs)
  • Sharansky: A Towering Figure - Melanie Phillips
    Sharansky says the common response to tyranny by free peoples is to appease it. It is only when the price of that appeasement becomes so high that the self-delusion can no longer be sustained that tyranny is fought - and by then, the difficulties are enormous, and the price is even greater human tragedy. (
        See also The Dissident Whose Ideas Have Won over the White House - Anton La Guardia (Telegraph-UK);
    Heroic Herald of Freedom - Michael Gove (Times-UK);
    The Sharansky Moment? - Caroline Glick (Jerusalem Post)

    Other Issues

  • Council of the Clueless - Editorial
    The World Council of Churches, taking a cue from the U.S. Presbyterian Church, has urged its member congregations to strongly consider divesting from companies that it says profit from Israeli actions in the West Bank and Gaza. Talk about a bizarre sense of timing - doesn't anyone at the Geneva-based group read the newspapers? The WCC call, which is modeled on the economic-pressure campaign against apartheid South Africa, comes as Israelis and Palestinians are enjoying the brightest hope in years for a genuine breakthrough for peace. Of course, the notion that Israel is politically comparable to the apartheid regime of South Africa is absurd: Where no blacks served in the South African parliament or sat on the Supreme Court, Arabs do both in Israel. The World Council of Churches' embarrassing effort to meddle is not just counter-productive, but downright dangerous. (New York Post)
  • Israel Caught In Sanctions Crossfire - James D. Besser
    Why is the push by main-line Protestant churches to punish Israel with economic sanctions happening now, just as the Middle East seems poised for a new peace process? Some analysts say Israel has been caught in a crossfire resulting from an internal Christian dispute. John Green, a University of Akron political scientist who studies the religious right, said the main-line Protestants "really dislike conservative Evangelicals - and their support for Israel is an easy target. Also, there is in many of these circles a deep antipathy to Bush and that carries over into Israel as well."
        The main-line Presbyterians - once the nation's political elite, a dominating force in politics - "have lost political capital, so now what they're going after is the sworn enemies who have usurped their political role," said Rabbi Gary Bretton-Granatoor, interreligious affairs director for the Anti-Defamation League. And they're attacking those seen as aligned with their Christian foes, including Israel and its supporters. The same Presbyterian meeting that started the divestment wheels turning also passed a resolution stating that "Christian Zionism does not represent the majority of American Christians and the faith of the Presbyterian Church (USA)," said Kenneth Goldstein, a University of Wisconsin political scientist. (New York Jewish Week)
  • U.S. Can Sit Back and Watch Europe Implode - Mark Steyn
    For Europe, unlike America, the war on terror is an internal affair, a matter of defusing large unassimilated radicalized Muslim immigrant populations. By some projections, the EU's population will be 40% Muslim by 2025. Already, more people each week attend Friday prayers at British mosques than Sunday service at Christian churches. (Chicago Sun-Times)
        See also Is There an Enemy Within? - Martin Bright and Jason Burke
    There is growing belief in Britain's security community that the war on terror has failed to win hearts and minds where it matters most: within Muslim communities. This applies not just to the Islamic world, but to the Muslim diaspora in the West, where a growing minority has been drawn to radical Islam. The police and MI5 see the threat from British Muslim extremists as at least as great as that from foreign terrorists. (Observer-UK)
        See also More Dutch Plan to Emigrate as Muslim Influx Tips Scales - Marlise Simons (New York Times)
  • The Culture of Death: Terrorist Organizations and Suicide Bombing
    Ami Pedahzur, deputy chair of the National Security Studies Center at Haifa University, is a world renowned expert on suicide terrorism. "Islam is not the factor that explains suicide terrorism," Pedahzur cautions. "Islam has no culture of death embedded in it. Organizations market this culture of death by using religious symbols because it helps them achieve their goals, he says.
        Pedahzur notes that suicide terrorism has worked in the past. It drove the U.S., France, and Israel from Lebanon in the mid-1980s, and will continue to be employed by groups when they believe it will be effective. Conversely, suicide terrorism will decline when the terrorist organizations conclude that it is not effective as an instrument or if its employment will undercut their political agenda. (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars)

    Weekend Features:

  • A World That Is About to Vanish - Daniel Ben Simon
    The human drama is unfolding in Gush Katif. Many area residents still refuse to believe that within a few months they will be forced to uproot themselves from Gush Katif's soil. Over the past two months, 12 infants have been born in Kfar Darom, and another four are due shortly. "What does this mean, you might ask?" local resident Irit Kadmon asks rhetorically, answering, "When people bring babies into the world, it means they have not lost hope. It means they are optimistic about the future." The Kadmons represent the Gaza Strip settlers' hard core: religious Zionists nourished on a love of the Holy Land together with their mothers' milk. (Ha'aretz)
        See also More Trauma Likely in Gaza Reburial Plan - Dan Ephron
    This summer, when Israel plans to evacuate thousands of settlers from Gaza, authorities are planning to dig up the remains of 46 Israelis buried in Gush Katif and re-inter them in cemeteries inside Israel. Eliezer Orbach, the head of Gush Katif's religious council, who has served as the caretaker of the cemetery since it was established in 1987, said he has attended the funerals of more young people than old, in part because of Palestinian attacks. Eight of those buried there were babies or children, 4 were soldiers in their early 20s when they died, and another dozen or so were in their 30s and 40s. The oldest was around 50. (Boston Globe)
  • Forensic Experts Restore Israeli Astronaut's Notes
    Forensic scientists have painstakingly restored the flight diary and notes of Israeli astronaut Col. Ilan Ramon, that survived the fiery disintegration of the space shuttle Columbia and two months of exposure to rain and sun in a Texas field in 2003. Eighteen pages handwritten in Hebrew were recovered: four from Ramon's diary during the flight; six were technical classroom notes made before launch; and eight were personal notes, also written before liftoff. Ramon, an Israeli war hero, was his country's first astronaut. (AP/New York Times)
  • Mehereta, Symbol of Ethiopian Pride - Hilary Leila Krieger
    Mehereta Baruch, who came in second on the reality TV show "The Ambassador," has soared to the top of the list of most recognizable Ethiopian-Israelis. "She changed what Israeli society thinks about the Ethiopian community," said Nurit Tezazu, media coordinator for the Israel Association for Ethiopian Jews. Baruch is being credited with shattering stereotypes, inspiring a new generation, and redefining Israeliness. According to Shlomo Molla, the Jewish Agency's senior consultant for Ethiopian immigrants, younger Ethiopians "can see the sky's the limit, and think 'I can compete, I can do it.'...She's opening the door for hundreds of young people." (Jerusalem Post)
  • I Got My MBA in the Israeli Army - Betsy Cummings
    A nation's military is not generally considered an entrepreneurial breeding ground. But it is in Israel, and that country's experience in drilling the virtues of agility and creative thinking into its fighting forces may presage a similar movement in the U.S., some analysts say. For a small army protecting a small country bordered by enemies, "there is no option but success," said Izhar Shay, a former IDF paratrooper and the chief executive of V-Secure Technologies, a network security company in Saddle Brook, N.J., that helps companies prevent attacks on their computer systems. "This is a perfect analogy to the business environment." Shay and other veterans say the Israeli military trains its soldiers to think quickly and act nimbly, adjusting to circumstances as they arise rather than waiting for orders. (New York Times)
  • How Tom Luke Said "Never Again" - Shashi Tharoor
    A retired Australian UN official called Tom Luke was born Tomas Lowenbach in 1926 into a Jewish family in Czechoslovakia. In 1942, he was sent with his family to the concentration camp of Theresienstadt. Birkenau followed; then Auschwitz, where his mother and sister were murdered. He survived, and migrated to Australia in 1949. When I first met Tom, he was more than halfway through a 28-year career with the UN working for developing countries and then for refugees. For him, the work he was doing for the UN was to ensure that what happened to millions like him could not happen again.
        When Vaclav Havel began his velvet revolution in Prague, Tom, at great personal and professional risk, smuggled printing and publishing equipment into Czechoslovakia to aid the underground press there. He saw no contradiction with his role as a UN official. The ideals he was defending were those of the UN Charter, drawn up by men and women for whom ''never again'' was more than a slogan. Luke currently lives in Geneva with his wife. The writer is the UN undersecretary general for communications and public information. (International Herald Tribune)
  • Obituary: Peter Malkin - The Israeli Agent Who Delivered Adolf Eichmann to Justice
    Safebreaker, explosives expert, Haganah resistance fighter, and finally Israeli secret agent, Peter Malkin captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, responsible for the deaths of millions of Jews during the Holocaust. Malkin tracked and then seized Eichmann on the streets of a Buenos Aires suburb in 1960, from where he was brought back to Israeli to expiate his crimes at the end of a rope. (Times-UK)
  • Observations:

    A Tyrant Cornered - Editorial (Washington Post)

    • As the Middle East changes all around him, Syrian President Bashar Assad still tries to play by the old rules. He figured he could sponsor terrorism in Iraq and Israel and thereby block progress toward democracy and peace. He calculated that the car bomb that killed former Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Hariri would stop the gathering Lebanese independence movement. He was wrong.
    • There is no sign that the crude and callow tyrant gets the message. His response to the turmoil set off by his own criminal policies has been to adopt the standard formula of beleaguered Middle Eastern autocrats: appease the superpowers, blame Israel, and appeal for "Arab unity."
    • The Bush administration and the French government rightly sense an opportunity. On Tuesday the two governments issued a statement again demanding "the immediate withdrawal of all Syrian military and intelligence forces from Lebanon" as well as "free and fair parliamentary elections this spring, bolstered by an international observer presence."
    • The unlikely but potent U.S.-French alliance can bring extraordinary pressure to bear on Damascus if it chooses: The freezing of an EU economic agreement and UN sanctions are among the available tools. The potential payoff is a big one: another free election in the Arab world this spring, an independent Lebanon and, just possibly, a change in Syria.
        See also Lebanon for the Lebanese - Editorial (New York Times)

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