Prepared for the
Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations

in association with Access/Middle East
by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
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July 18, 2003

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In-Depth Issue:

Islamic Jihad: "Attacks Will Resume" - Matthew Gutman (Jerusalem Post)
    Despite 240 arrests of Islamic Jihad members and the targeted killing of more than a dozen, the terrorist group regenerates hydra-like.
    The group numbers only about 100 hard-core fighters scattered about the West Bank.
    Islamic Jihad was founded in 1981 by ultra-radical Egyptian members of the Muslim Brotherhood, strongly influenced by the Iranian revolution, who had split from a Gaza branch of the group.
    According to a senior security source, the group is highly centralized, receiving many of its orders directly from its leader Ramadan Shalah in Damascus.
    Islamic Jihad is candid about its mission to destroy the Jewish state: In 1990, one of the organization's leaders, Sheikh Assad Tamimi, expressed the group's principle thus: "The Jews have to return to the countries from which they came. We shall not accede to a Jewish state on our land, even if it is only one village."
    According to the security source, while Israel is adamant that the PA could easily disarm the terror groups, the probability of such action is "minimal. Who knows how many days of this hudna we have left?"
    Iran is the main patron of and terror contractor to Islamic Jihad. Documents found in Palestinian security installations show that Iran is pumping cash into all of the Palestinian terror organizations, and especially Islamic Jihad.

Iran's Millionaire Mullahs - Sadeq Saba (BBC)
    There is a widespread belief among ordinary Iranians that 20% of the profits from every car sold in the country goes to Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as a religious tax.
    Last week, after Iran's ministry of industry announced that the country's state-owned car manufacturers will no longer pay any money to the supreme leader's office - although the statement was later withdrawn - the ayatollah took the unusual step of denying he receives any illegitimate payments.
    But the ayatollah's denials will do little to dispel the widely-held view in Iran that a new class of millionaire mullahs are plundering the riches of the country.

Pressures on the Cease-Fire - Sa'id Ghazali (Independent-UK)
    Sources close to the Al-Aqsa Brigades, linked to Arafat's ruling Fatah party, said Palestinians in south Lebanon were trying to recruit militants in the West Bank for attacks in Israel.
    A source said underground cells in Ramallah, Jenin, and Balata refugee camp received instructions from Fatah leaders in Lebanon, including Muneer Maqdah from Ein al-Helweh near Sidon.
    Details are emerging of how, in an effort to shore up the splits in Fatah and the Al-Aqsa Brigades, Abu Mazen's government has been paying militant leaders to honor the ceasefire.
    A Palestinian minister admitted that payments had been made, but did not confirm rumors that one leader received as much as $10,000.
    Abdul Fattah Hamayel, Minister without Portfolio, said: "They are human beings. They need to pay the rent and the telephone bill."

Half of Baghdadis Say the War Was Right - Anton La Guardia (Telegraph-UK)
    According to an opinion survey in Baghdad conducted by a British polling firm, half of the nearly 800 people questioned said they believed the war that removed Saddam Hussein was "right," compared with 27% who said it was "wrong."

Russian-Jewish Immigrants in U.S. Have Israel Connection - Shlomo Shamir (Ha'aretz)
    "The children of the first immigrants are now looking for something beyond the career success and economic security they have achieved," says Prof. Daniel (Igor) Branovan, 36, a Russian-Jewish immigrant leader in the U.S.
    "The central theme for the great majority of the second generation of immigrants is their Jewish identity, and, for most of them, the search for identity takes place on the level of relations with Israel," he said.
    While one can hear reservations expressed about Israel's policy within the mainstream of the Jewish community, the overwhelming majority of Jewish immigrants from Russia supports Israel without any reservations, Branovan noted.
    About 85% of the immigrants in New York have relatives in Israel, and 60% have first-degree relatives, explains Dr. Sam Klieger, the American Jewish Committee's coordinator for Jewish-Russian immigrants.

E-Groups Abused by Jihadists - Rita Katz and Josh Devon (National Review)
    Yahoo! has become one of al-Qaeda's most significant ideological bases of operation, utilizing several facets of Yahoo!'s service, including chat functions, e-mail, and, most importantly, Yahoo! Groups.
    Yahoo! Groups are electronic groups (e-groups) dedicated to a specific topic whereby members of the group can discuss the topic, post relevant articles and multimedia files, and provide a meeting place for those with similar interests.
    Al-Qaeda and its supporters have started several Yahoo! Groups with topics related to the terrorist group and the downfall of Western civilization.
    These jihadist websites are like loaded guns, providing not only the ideological basis for instilling hatred into the minds of individuals all over the world, but also providing the technical know-how.

Dizzying Growth in Haredi Town on West Bank - Nadav Shragai (Ha'aretz)
    In 1996, Betar Ilit - an ultra-Orthodox (haredi) town south of Jerusalem next to the "green line" - comprised 5,000 people and 1,200 households.
    Today it has a population of 24,000 and 4,700 households.
    Each year there are 1,700 newborns in Betar Ilit, and young couples settle in 500 new apartments, giving the town an annual increase of 3,000 to 3,500 new residents.
    Some 3,000 homes are in various stages of completion.

Israeli Food Exports to U.S. Up 33% - Hadas Manor (Globes)
    Food exports to the U.S. rose 33%, to $59 million, in January-May 2003, from $44 million in the corresponding period last year, said Minister of Economic Affairs to North America Zohar Pery Tuesday.
    He attributed part of the increased exports to the success of the �Fine Foods from Israel" project to encourage the purchase of Israeli products in the U.S.
    The project is part of a campaign that builds upon goodwill toward Israel among Jewish communities and supporters of Israel who oppose the boycotts of Israeli goods in Europe.

Indian IT Delegation Signs 22 Deals in Israel (Sify News-India)
    A fifteen-member Information Technology delegation from India has signed 22 deals with Israeli companies during a visit to the country to discuss ways to integrate Israeli cellular, landline, Internet, and communication companies in Indian projects.

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News Resources - North America and Europe:

  • Iran Must Pay Family of Israel Bombing Victim, Court Says
    The government of Iran must pay $313 million to the children of Leah Stern, an American woman killed in a 1997 suicide bombing that tore apart a Jerusalem market where she had been shopping, U.S. District Judge Royce C. Lamberth ruled Thursday. Judge Lamberth said he found the evidence "overwhelming" that Iran's military had trained the commanders of the Islamic Resistance Movement, also known as Hamas, and that these commanders arranged the 1997 market bombing. The judge said there is also clear evidence that Iran's government had paid millions of dollars to sponsor the group's attacks and the purchase of sophisticated bombing supplies. The Iranian government did not contest the suit.
        Lamberth said in his 30-page ruling that Iran began to bankroll and train Hamas for terrorist missions in the early 1990s, and even rewarded the group after a suicide bombing. "By bolstering Hamas, and turning it into a deadly and effective leader in the fight against Israel, Iran boosted popular support for the Islamic movement among Palestinians," Lamberth wrote. "Likewise...Iran was and is interested in using Hamas terrorist attacks to disrupt peace negotiations between Israel and the Arabs." (Washington Post)
        See also U.S. Suspects Hizballah in Argentina Attack
    State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said, "Hizballah, the Iranian-sponsored terrorist group, is strongly suspected of responsibility for the attack" on the Jewish Community Center in Buenos Aires on July 18th, 1994, which killed 85 people. Friday is the 9th anniversary of the bombing. The Government of Argentina earlier this year announced indictments of four Iranian government officials in connection with the attack. (U.S. State Department/JTA)
  • 700 on Trial for Morocco Suicide Bombings
    Seven hundred people will go on trial in Morocco next week in connection with the suicide bomb attacks that killed 44 people two months ago, the government said Thursday. The trials, the scale of which astonished human rights groups, will take place in Rabat and in Casablanca, where 12 suicide bombers blew themselves up in five almost simultaneous blasts on May 16. "The trials will involve 700 suspects...some are directly linked to the attacks...others belonged to groups which have been preparing acts of violence in the country," Mohamed Bouzoubaa, the justice minister, said on state television. (Telegraph-UK)
  • EU Shelves Action to Blacklist Hamas
    The European Union has shelved moves to outlaw the political wing of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, despite pressure from the U.S. and Israel, after it accepted a ceasefire, diplomats disclosed on Thursday. Adding Hamas to the bloc's blacklist of banned terrorist organizations would have led to the freezing of its assets and possible prosecution of its activists. "In the circumstances, we agreed not to take any immediate action," a senior EU diplomat said. "We agreed to keep the issue under review (and) return to it if there is a breach in the ceasefire caused by a Hamas return to terrorism." (Reuters)
  • Palestinians Demonstrate Against Violence
    About 500 people rallied in downtown Nablus, demanding an end to the virtual immunity of gunmen from prosecution or punishment for crimes ranging from robbery to murder. On Wednesday, 3 gunmen went into a pharmacy to abduct another man. On the way out, witnesses said, one of the gunmen fired randomly on the street, killing Amnah Abu Hiljah, 36, who was holding her 2-month-old baby. In a second incident, a 14-year-old boy was killed when a bomb he was playing with exploded, security officials said, adding that the device was like those planted on West Bank roads against Israeli vehicles. (AP)
  • Arafat's Star Fades in Norway
    High-ranking diplomats who sat in on Wednesday's meeting between Norwegian Prime Minister Bondevik and Israeli Prime Minister Sharon said that the Norwegians now view Abbas as a stronger player in the peace process than Arafat. Sharon wants Norway, along with the rest of the world, to completely ignore Arafat, but that request was rejected. Norway will continue to recognize Arafat as the Palestinians' elected leader, Bondevik said, but he'll also seek out Abbas. "Arafat mustn't weaken Abbas's position," Bondevik added. (Aftenposten-Norway)
  • News Resources - Israel, the Mideast, and Asia:

  • Israel Considers Freeing Hamas, Jihad Prisoners - Aluf Benn, Amos Harel, Arnon Regular, and Nathan Guttman
    Between 40 to 60 Hamas and Islamic Jihad activists are now included on the list of some 400 Palestinian prisoners Israel is considering releasing, government sources said Thursday. The Hamas prisoners to be released will be those who were active in the civilian services section and not the military wing.
        Prime Minister Sharon is due to meet with Palestinian Prime Minister Abbas early next week. Abbas will meet with President Bush in Washington on July 25, and Sharon is to meet with Bush on July 29. Following the meeting with Abbas, Sharon is to begin the prisoner releases. But government sources said they might be delayed until Abbas returns from Washington, so the prisoners don't appear to be delivered to Arafat.
        Practically speaking, there are questions about whether Abbas can actually implement the steps he has announced he wants to take, including accepting security responsibility for more Palestinian cities in the West Bank. The Preventive Security force and the civilian police were supposed to be under Abbas's command in the West Bank, as they are in Gaza, but in effect, Arafat controls them. Arafat also seems to control the agenda for the Palestinian negotiations with Israel and the U.S.
        The Palestinians, who received $20 million in special aid this week from the Americans, will be asking for U.S. help in packaging a $450 million aid grant from donor countries to cover PA deficits and help create jobs. If that aid goes through, the Palestinians will be seeking a $1 billion package for a host of rehabilitation, construction, and social service projects. (Ha'aretz)
  • Rejectionists Warn Abbas Against Washington Visit - Khaled Abu Toameh
    Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and two Fatah-affiliated groups on Thursday urged PA Prime Minister Mahmud Abbas to call off a planned visit to Washington and warned him against "succumbing to American pressure." Islamic Jihad leader Muhammad al-Hindi said any aid Abbas receives from Washington would be considered "a bribe to stop the intifada." (Jerusalem Post)
  • Foreign Ministry Launches Campaign Against Israel Bashing at UN - Herb Keinon
    Palestinian incitement against Israel needs to end not only on PA television and radio, but also on CNN and in the UN General Assembly, senior foreign ministry official David Granit said Thursday. Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom is expected to tell EU foreign ministers next Monday that if the EU views itself as an active partner in the road map process, it is incumbent upon it to take action against anti-Israel resolutions in UN bodies, both by voting against them, and ensuring that the Palestinians and Arab states tone down the rhetoric. Many of these resolutions can be characterized as the type of incitement the PA has obligated itself to put an end to under the road map, Granit said. "One resolution may not be important," Granit said, "But 30 or 40 creates an impact in many countries which, because of these resolutions, treat you like a leper." There is a growing understanding, especially among the central and eastern European countries who are slated to join the EU next year, that this is a phenomenon that needs to end, Granit said. (Jerusalem Post)
  • Global Commentary and Think-Tank Analysis (Best of U.S., UK, and Israel):

  • America, Don't Ever Apologize for Your Valuess - British Prime Minister Tony Blair (Address to a joint session of Congress Thursday)
    We know there are states in the Middle East now actively funding and helping people who regard it as God's will in the act of suicide to take as many innocent lives with them on their way to God's judgment. Some of these states are desperately trying to acquire nuclear weapons. Can we be sure that terrorism and weapons of mass destruction will join together? If we are wrong, we will have destroyed a threat that, at its least, is responsible for inhuman carnage and suffering. But if we are right, and we do not act, then we will have hesitated in the face of this menace when we should have given leadership. That is something history will not forgive.
        We must never compromise the security of the state of Israel. The state of Israel should be recognized by the entire Arab world, and the vile propaganda used to indoctrinate children not just against Israel but against Jews must cease. You cannot teach people hate and then ask them to practice peace. (Wall Street Journal)
  • A Road Map Paid for in Euros - Christopher Patten, European Commissioner for External Relations
    Between November 2000 and December 2002 the EU granted nearly €250m ($280m) to keep the PA alive and to sustain the most basic of public services. Thanks to conditions that the EU imposed, the PA now has a credible and transparent internal accounting system, and recruitment of staff has ceased to be a covert form of social security. The EU has launched a €30m emergency program to help Palestinian municipalities carry out urgent repairs - starting with northern Gaza and Bethlehem. In addition, we have made a first payment of €40m to the Ministry of Finance to help pay off arrears to the private sector. A further payment of €40m this year is conditional on continuing financial management reform. In addition, the European Commission is making available €30m for a new loan fund for small Palestinian businesses. I do not pretend that it is possible to buy stability in the Palestinian territories. But we cannot expect peace to take root unless ordinary people see the benefits of change. (Financial Times-UK)
  • Syria Staging PR Offensive - Farid N. Ghadry
    The Ba'ath party in Syria is launching a public relations campaign to persuade the U.S. public that Syria's Ba'athists are not the same as Saddam's Ba'athists. There are those in the Ba'ath party who support Saddam's resurgence, betting that the U.S. does not have the latitude or the will to wage another military campaign on the heels of one that, in the minds of many Syrians, has not been won yet. There are also those who hope that the storm will simply blow over and Syria will return to the normalcy of yesterday. The PR campaign's aim is to soften the image of Syria in the American public eye and to reverse the almost imminent vote in Congress in favor of the Syria Accountability Act, that will paralyze Syria economically and punish the government for its 27-year occupation of Lebanon. Syria has been finding it hard to contract with any reputable PR firm in the U.S. to handle the rebuilding of its image. Most companies are concerned that their more stable customers will find it offensive to be part of that club. (Washington Times)
  • Empty Promises of Freedom - Fawaz A. Gerges
    From field research in Arab countries over the last few years, it's clear that people in the Middle East want democracy. Thousands of courageous Muslims have paid dearly for speaking out against state oppression and religious fanaticism and for demanding political enfranchisement. These democrats hold the key to the Arab world's future and deserve America's support. It's also clear that Arab autocrats - even those who woo the West with democratic language - won't do anything unless they're nudged and pushed. President Bush and his senior aides spent most of their meeting last month with the leaders of Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia pressing them to fight terrorism. What they should have been talking about was the importance of promoting democracy and reform. If America wants to end terrorism, it needs to understand that, ultimately, democracy and respect for human rights and the rule of law are the most effective ways to undermine extremism. (New York Times)
  • Seeing Iraq's Future by Looking at Its Past - Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan
    Iraq under Faisal I, who became its king in 1921, was a country whose citizens participated in building the nation, no matter one's denomination or affiliation, whether Shiite or Sunni, Chaldean or Sabaean, Arab or Kurd, Circassian or Turkman. Iraq was the first Arab country to join the League of Nations, and became a model for other emerging nation-states in the Middle East and beyond. The current situation, with an increasingly nervous American and British military force, is a classic example of bad governance. Not only is it being interpreted in Iraq and abroad as a blatant and unnecessary form of neocolonialism, it also threatens to reap a bitter harvest of anti-Americanism. It will further destabilize an already volatile region. My friend Shimon Shamir, the Israeli scholar and former ambassador to Jordan, has wisely urged us to "turn our attention from the threat projected by the extremists to the promise implied by the moderates." (New York Times)
  • A Key Condition for Road Map Success - Yisrael Harel
    The only chance the road map has of success is if one key condition is fulfilled: The vast majority on both sides, Jews and Arabs, have to want it. The majority of the Jewish people does want the road map. The vast majority of the Arab people living in the Land of Israel, however, has not at any stage reconciled itself to Jewish sovereignty over even a small part of the land. It accepts the map as just one stage in the "plan of stages," not as a peace agreement. (Ha'aretz)
  • U.S. Middle East Policy and Iran's Politico-Economic Development - Mordechai Abir
    Iran has enjoyed a substantial windfall from oil prices, which has more than matched its additional budgetary expenses and has enabled it to establish a special "fund for future generations." The attitude of the clerical regime was largely to be blamed for the steady decline in Iran's oil output from 6 million b/d in the late 1970s to 3.5 million b/d in 2002. Iran's Ministry of Petroleum is concerned that international oil companies will prefer to invest in the development of new pro-Western Iraq's resources rather than in restrictive, clergy-dominated Iran. As far as the Pentagon is concerned, there is hardly any difference between the radical Iranian clergy who control Iran's policy and President Muhammad Khatami's "so-called reformist government." (Institute for Contemporary Affairs/Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs)
  • Bin Laden Finds Recruits in the New Saudi Underclass - Richard Beeston
    For the first time in modern history, Saudi Arabia is having to confront the unfamiliar concept of poverty and the emergence of a growing underclass. In Qarantina most of the streets are unpaved and many live in tiny concrete hovels without running water. Groups of women sift through plastic bags full of clothes and other items donated by wealthier Saudis. While according to official figures the unemployment rate is 10%, others estimate that it may be as high as 27%. By far the hardest hit is the country's youth. "Young people feel they have no future. They are bored and disillusioned. That is is easy for religious fanatics to recruit young Saudis and to brainwash them into becoming Islamic militants," said Abdulhai, a Saudi businessman. (London Times)
  • Arafat Must Go - Ami Horowitz
    Israel cannot be expected to negotiate and strike deals with a Palestinian entity whose leader, Arafat, uses his puppet prime minister to mouth peaceful words while simultaneously conducting terrorist operations. Arafat is a terrorist plain and simple, and no amount of dressing will change that - not a new prime minister, not continued meetings with the European foreign ministers. Arafat deserves nothing short of being erased from the scene. (National Review)
  • Taking Truman at His Deed - Richard Cohen
    It's a good thing that Harry Truman did not express his feelings to someone like me, because - had the Secret Service not been around - I would have decked him. For him to liken Jews to Hitler - the victim to the murderer - was a breathtaking expression of bad taste and ignorance. But the president who recorded those ugly sentiments was the very same president who bucked the State Department and recognized the State of Israel. Now, with Truman, we have a man who set down his supposed anti-Semitism on paper. But where is the comparable behavior? Nowhere to be found. (Washington Post)

    Weekend Features:

  • At Camp Koby, Israeli Kids Beat Back Loss - Joshua Mitnick
    By all appearances, Camp Koby seems like what you'd expect from the sleepaway camp experience. But all of the kids at the free 10-day camp have had their childhood marred by the loss of parents and siblings in terrorist attacks. Here, the personal nightmares of loss become a meeting point for the campers rather than a terrible secret to be concealed. As the Palestinian violence grinds on, the children here are part of a growing subset of Israelis who must figure out how to continue on after family members become the victims of terrorism. "In Israel, the people continue but the grief is covered up," said Sherri Mandell, who helped her husband, Seth, found the camp as a memorial to their eldest son, Koby, after he was murdered by terrorists two years ago. From their grief came the realization that by creating communities of survivors, they could help others grapple with mourning. Ensuring that relatives of terror victims do not remain isolated became the Koby Mandell Foundation's mission. It also sponsors midyear retreats for children and adult women survivors. (New York Jewish Week)
  • Jewish Groups Use Web for Fund-Raising - Joe Berkofsky
    The Jewish National Fund is mining for Internet gold with new online features expected to raise $1 million by year's end. The JNF raised $325,000 online in 2001 and $663,000 online in 2002. The JNF site raised $450,000 in the first five months of the year, or between $3,000 and $4,000 daily. In a June 2002 Chronicle of Philanthropy study, the online fund-raising of 124 charities shot up to $123 million in 2002, from only $41 million a year earlier. Others on the list were the Jewish Federation/Jewish United Fund of Metropolitan Chicago, which raised $605,598 in 2002; the United Jewish Communities, $511,000; and UJA-Federation of New York, $207,902. The Jewish Funders Network, an umbrella group of Jewish family foundations, recently launched I-Fund, a kind of Web matchmaker for Jewish foundations and grant seekers. (JTA)
  • The Israel Leon Uris Made - Charles Paul Freund
    The death last month of writer Leon Uris has revived interest in Exodus, his 1958 novel about the establishment of Israel, if only to recall its extraordinary impact. Exodus is a prime example of the argument that popular works influence history far more than highly regarded literary creations. It was a best-seller in the U.S. for over a year, selling 20 million copies, and was translated into 50 languages. But the work's real impact lay beyond literature. Uris popularized Israel as a place of righteous refuge, solidifying a link between the Holocaust and Israel. (Beirut Daily Star/AlJazeerah).
  • Why Stay in a Place of Fear? It's Home - David Wilder
    People frequently ask why we live in Hebron, a so-called Arab city in the heart of the "West Bank." Why are 800 Jews - men, women, and children - so stubbornly willing to risk their lives to remain in Hebron? Why am I living in a place where more than 40 of my Jewish neighbors and friends have been killed or wounded since I moved here in 1981? The answer is that Hebron is the first Jewish city in the Land of Israel, home of our patriarchs and matriarchs - Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and Sarah, Rebecca and Leah. King David ruled from Hebron for more than seven years before moving the capital to Jerusalem. Jews have lived in Hebron almost continuously for thousands of years. When Israel returned to Hebron in 1967, Jews did not occupy a foreign city; rather, they came back home. Eviction from Hebron would be tantamount to the removal of Americans from Boston or Philadelphia upon terrorist demands. Except, of course, that American history is less than 250 years old; Jewish history in Hebron is more than 3,700 years old. (Los Angeles Times)
  • Observations:  

    What Happened to the German Right of Return? - Shlomo Avineri (Jerusalem Post)

    • During an international meeting dealing with Middle Eastern problems, sponsored by a German foundation, a Lebanese academic raised the issue of the right of Palestinian refugees to return to Israel.
    • A senior German minister responded: "This is an issue with which we in Germany are familiar; may I ask my German colleagues in the audience to raise their hand if they, or their families, were refugees from Eastern Europe?" More than half the Germans present (government officials, journalists, businessmen) raised a hand: they, or their families, had been Vertriebene, expelled from their ancestral homes in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia after World War II. It is estimated that up to 10 million were expelled; with their descendants today they make up almost double that number - almost one in four Germans.
    • The German minister said he himself was born in Eastern Europe and his family was expelled in the wake of the anti-German atmosphere after 1945. "But," he added, "neither I nor any of my colleagues claim the right to go back."
    • Anyone who now argues that the 1948 Palestinian refugees have a claim, in principle, to return to Israel, has to confront the question: Why not the millions of German post-1945 expellees from Eastern Europe?
    • The German minister explained: Had a German government insisted in talks about reunification in 1990 that all German expellees from Poland and Czechoslovakia have, in principle, a right to return to these countries, it would have been clear that what West Germany had in mind was not reunification, but undoing the consequences of Nazi Germany's defeat in 1945.
    • This is exactly the meaning of the Palestinian demand for the right of return. The Palestinians' insistence on it at Camp David and Taba in 2000 made clear to most Israelis that what they have in mind is not undoing the consequences of 1967 - but undoing the consequences of their defeat in 1948.
    • At that time, Palestinian Arabs and four Arab members of the UN went to war - not only against Israel, but against international legitimacy and the UN plan for a two-state solution. There is no other example of member countries going to war against UN decisions; this is what the Arab countries - and the Palestinians - did. Obviously they prefer to forget it.
    • Clearly there is a serious humanitarian issue involved. That the Palestinians' plight has been compounded by Arab use of the refugees as political pawns for half a century is a measure of the cynicism and immorality of Arab politics.

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